Greek 1: Introduction to Biblical Languages

NT 1B03

 People like to talk about what the Bible means, sometimes, even with reference to “the original Greek.” However, for readers and teachers of the Bible to access useful resources and make insightful observations about the meaning of a text—without making regrettable errors—they need to understand how languages make meaning, and they need to understand how Greek makes meaning. 

This course explores the world of human language: language theory and how it applies to understanding texts. It will also review English grammar—which many students were never taught—as a basis for understanding Greek grammar. This will enable students to be better prepared to engage with out main task: learning the basics of Greek and focusing on how the linguistic elements lead to meaningful and accurate interpretation. In this course, there will necessarily be some memorization of vocabulary and the three main paradigms (the article, nominal endings, and verb endings), but this course will also significantly reduce the amount of memorization usually required in language learning, since the focus is on understanding and application. 

This course will apply to two types of students: 

  1. Those who want to begin the process of learning biblical languages, especially those who plan on doing more advanced learning (Subsequent courses will teach the intelligent use of Greek resources as well as a more detailed knowledge of the languages and application to the biblical text).
  2. Those who do not plan to study biblical languages in depth (or those who are not sure whether they want to) but want to understand how language work, how to move from one language to another, and how to interpret the biblical text responsibly (those who want to continue with deeper study are encouraged to do so!). 


  • Know the major grammatical categories in English and Greek 
  • Understand how language makes meaning 
  • Understand the functions of language (experiential, interpersonal, textual) 
  • Understand what constitutes a legitimate “word study” 
  • Recognize and understand a number of words from the Greek New Testament 
  • Begin to learn the grammatical forms/paradigms in Greek 


  • Be “one approved, a worker who does not need to be ashamed and who correctly handles the word of truth.” (2 Tim. 2.15) 
  • Be a mature interpreter of scripture as taught by the Spirit (1 Cor 2:6–16) 
  • Be someone who allows scripture to motivate, form, and transform your faith, worship, and Christian way of life 


  • Be able to describe how choices in language affect the meaning of the biblical text 
  • Be able to describe the functions of the basic grammatical forms in Greek and use them in interpretation 
  • Be able to read and understand Greek texts from the New Testament 
  • Be able to communicate the biblical text meaningfully without committing common mistakes